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Ley de Consulta: Más allá de las confusiones

Enviado el 14/09/2011
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Noticias SER

La Ley de Consulta Previa a los pueblos indígenas viene siendo materia de polémica, luego de que fuera promulgada por el presidente Ollanta Humala en Bagua, en especial por las diversas y contradictorias declaraciones de funcionarios públicos que dan a la norma diferentes interpretaciones, aunque todas ellas se centran fundamentalmente en el tema de los conflictos generados por la gran inversión privada en zonas donde existen comunidades campesinas y nativas, olvidando que esta ley tiene que ver con el conjunto de derechos de los pueblos indígenas que, al parecer, a nadie le importa mucho.

En algunos casos las interpretaciones son bastante lejanas de lo que la ley manda, como las realizadas por el Jefe de la Unidad de Conflictos de la Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros, Víctor Caballero, quien ha señalado que debe ser el mecanismo a aplicar cuando se hayan agotado todos los demás procedimientos de participación vinculados a los proyectos de inversión; en tanto que el Director de Minería, Henry Luna, ha señalado un número de proyectos que deben ser consultados por no contar con Estudios de Impacto Ambiental aprobados, sin tomar en cuenta si es que existen o no pueblos indígenas en las zonas de impacto.

Asimismo se habla del “reglamento de la ley” que debe ser elaborado por el Viceministerio de Interculturalidad, cuando lo que la ley manda es que esta instancia establezca los casos en que se debe aplicar la consulta previa. Sin embargo se ha anunciado ya la constitución de una comisión multisectorial para la elaboración del reglamento, cuando la ley establece que los diferentes organismos deben adecuarse a la norma, y eso implica que pueda haber diversos reglamentos de acuerdo a la temática a consultar, que es bastante amplia.

Pero las declaraciones confusas no sólo vienen de parte del Estado, sino que al coro se ha sumado uno de los principales líderes del gremio minero, Roque Benavides, quien ha señalado desde Arequipa que “sería nefasto que las comunidades tengan poder de decisión”, cuando lo que la ley abre es la obligación de que el Estado establezca el diálogo y la participación de un sector tradicionalmente excluido de la toma de decisiones.

Pero tal vez lo más grave de las declaraciones de Benavides ha sido demostrar el enorme desconocimiento de la historia rural de nuestro país, al afirmar que las comunidades han sido constituidas durante el gobierno de Juan Velasco, como producto del proceso de Reforma Agraria. Esta declaración revela una preocupante voluntad de no reconocer los derechos de las comunidades y por extensión de los pueblos indígenas del país, pero además la ignorancia que existe en el sector sobre la realidad en la cual desarrollan sus proyectos.

Para acabar con el rosario de confusiones, el dirigente de la CAOI Miguel Palacín, ha manifestado también en Arequipa, que la Ley de Consulta Previa es  insuficiente ya que es necesario reconocer el derecho al consentimiento de los pueblos indígenas, sin el cual ninguna decisión estatal puede ser adoptada, yendo a contracorriente de lo señalado por la propia OIT y el relator de las Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas, James Anaya, con respecto a este tema.

Por ello, en Noticias SER consideramos imprescindible que el Ministerio de Cultura inicie de inmediato una agresiva y extensa campaña de información dirigida al conjunto de las organizaciones indígenas, al sector privado y al interior del propio gobierno para evitar que la Ley de Consulta Previa acabe convertida en un nuevo motivo de pugna y conflicto, lo que constituiría un contrasentido injustificado.

Para ello, sería bueno que el Ministerio de Cultura empiece definiendo la situación del INDEPA que se encuentra en un limbo jurídico y ni siquiera aparece en el organigrama de este sector, ya que legalmente sus funciones deben ser asumidas por el Viceministerio de Interculturalidad, y también que la Ministra Susana Baca asuma plenamente sus funciones, liderando la tarea más urgente, entre las muchas que tiene, que se le presenta a su sector. Si esto no se hace corremos el riesgo de que una ley que ha sido vista como una posibilidad de cambiar las reglas de juego entre los pueblos indígenas y el Estado termine siendo desnaturalizada.

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